23.4 Relative pronouns der, die, das


The relative pronouns der, die, das
    masculine feminine neutral
  Singular      
  Nominative der die das
  Genitive dessen der dessen
  Dative dem der dem
  Accusative den die das
  Plural      
  Nominative die die die
  Genitive deren deren deren
  Dative denen denen denen
  Akkusativ die die die
     

Examples: Let's try to combine these two phrases into one
  Der Wein steht auf dem Tisch.
Ich kaufte ihn gestern.

= The wine is on the table. I bought it yesterday.  
  These two phrases combined to one:
  Der Wein, den ich gestern kaufte, steht auf dem Tisch.

= The wine, that I bought yesterday, is on the table.  

The main clause is Der Wein steht auf dem Tisch. The object to which the relative pronoun refers is Wein. Wein is singular masculine. In the main phrase Wein is in Nominative, but that is not to interesting to us. That what is more interesting is which declination has Wein in the relative clause. In the relative clause Wein has the Accusative -declination, because we ask What did I buy yesterday?

Ich kaufte ihn gestern. Wen kaufte ich gestern? Ihn.
= I bought it yesterday. What did I buy yesterday? It.  

This means that we have the Accusative-declination. Looking at the table for declinations we find that the correct pronoun is den. This means the phrase is:

Der Wein, den ich gestern kaufte, steht auf dem Tisch.

Let's try to combine these two phrases into one
 

Ich habe den Männern Geld gegeben.
= I have given money to the men.


Du siehst sie da.
= You see them overthere.
  Ich habe den Männern, die du da siehst, Geld gegeben.
= I have given money to the men, that you see over there.


The main clause is Ich habe den Männern Geld gegeben. The object that is referred to is den Männern. Den Männern is plural masculine. In the main phrase die Männer is in Dative, but that doesn't interest us too much. That, what's interesting to us is, which declination die Männer have in the relative clause. In the relative phrase die Männer are in Accusative -declination.

Du siehst sie da. Wen siehst du da? Sie.
= You see them over there. Whom do you see? Them

So we need the relative pronoun in plural masculine in Accusative -declination, which is - according to the table, die. The phrase is:

Ich habe den Männern, die du da siehst, Geld gegeben.

  Let's try to combine these two phrases into one
Die Frauen sind im Schwimmbad.

= The women are in the swimming pool.
Die Töchter der Frauen sind in der Schule.
= The daughters of the women are in school.
  Die Frauen, deren Töchter in der Schule sind, sind im Schwimmbad.

= The women, whose daughters are in school, are in the swimming pool.

The main clause is Die Frauen sind im Schwimmbad. The object that is referred to is die Frauen. Die Frauen is plural feminine. In the main phrase die Frauen is in Nominative, but that doesn't interest us too much. That, what's interesting to us is which declination die Frauen have in the relative clause. In the relative phrase die Frauen is in Genitive-declination.

Die Töchter der Frauen. Wessen Töchter? Die Töchter der Frauen.
= The women, whose daughters are in school, are in the swimming pool.

We need the relative pronoun in plural feminine and in Genitive-declination. According to the table it is deren.
The clause is:

Die Frauen, deren Töchter in der Schule sind, sind im Schwimmbad.






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