|18.104.22.168 Summary - perfect participle|
In addition to these four different types there are those ones that are totally irregular. The irregular ones do not have a prefix ge- and the endings are more or less unpredictable. There are only a limited amount of verbs that are so irregular.
I) verbs that end on -ieren => ending -t,
no prefix (e.g. studieren [to study] => studiert)
II) verbs that have already a prefix do not use ge-; that can be ver-, emp-, zer-, be-, er-, vor-
the next hints are more a hint than a rule. Basically you have to learn them by heart, but it might help to keep in mind that
IIa) verbs with prefix ver-, emp- mostly have a perfect participle suffix -en
IIb) verbs with prefix be-, er-, vor-, zer- mostly have a perfect participle suffix -t.
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