Summary - perfect participle

We have seen the four types of perfect participles.

a) weak verbs with suffix -t
    (no change of vowel)
warten => gewartet (to wait => waited)
b) strong verbs with suffix -en
    (change of vowel)
bringen => gebracht (to bring => brought)
c) strong verbs with suffix -t
    (change of vowel)
sehen => gesehen (to see => seen)
d) strong verbs with suffix -en
    (no change of vowel)
gehen => gegangen (to go => gone)

In addition to these four different types there are those ones that are totally irregular. The irregular ones do not have a prefix ge- and the endings are more or less unpredictable. There are only a limited amount of verbs that are so irregular.

I) verbs that end on -ieren => ending -t, no prefix (e.g. studieren [to study] => studiert)
II) verbs that have already a prefix do not use ge-; that can be ver-, emp-, zer-, be-, er-, vor-
the next hints are more a hint than a rule. Basically you have to learn them by heart, but it might help to keep in mind that
IIa) verbs with prefix ver-, emp- mostly have a perfect participle suffix -en
IIb) verbs with prefix be-, er-, vor-, zer- mostly have a perfect participle suffix -t.

kapieren => kapiert to understand => understood
ramponieren => ramponiert to break => broken
verstehen => verstanden to understand => understood
empfinden => empfunden to feel => felt
beenden => beendet to finish => finished
vorbereiten => vorbereitet to prepare => prepared
berichten => berichtet to tell => told
versuchen => versucht to try => tried
erobern => erobert to conquer => conquered
erreichen => erreicht to achieve => achieved  
beschließen => beschlossen to decide => decided
zerstören => zerstört to destroy => destroyed
vergessen => vergessen to forget => forgotten
beachten => beachtet to consider => considered
verursachen => verursacht to cause => caused
erweitern => erweitert to extend => extended
errichten => errichtet to erect => erected

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